Installing Piezometers: the Fully-Grouted Method
Grouting-in piezometers is a faster, easier way to install piezometers. It eliminates the conventional sand filter and bentonite seal. The piezometer is lowered into the borehole, sometimes tied to a grout pipe, and the entire borehole is backfilled with a non-shinking, low permeability grout.
There is a growing amount of literature supporting this method. Below, you can find references and links to PDF papers and web pages. Please let us know about any papers that should be added to the list.
References & Papers
Vaughan, P. R , "A Note on Sealing Piezometers in Boreholes", Geotechnique 19, No 3, pp 405-413, 1969.
McKenna, G.T, "Grouted-in Installation of Piezometers in Boreholes," Geotechnical Journal 32, pp 355-363, 1995.
Mikkelsen, P. E, Grouting in Piezometers - An Experiment at Slope Indicator, 1999
Mikkelsen, P. E, Cement-Bentonite Grout Backfill for Borehole Instruments, Geotechnical News, December,2002.
Mikkelsen and Green, 2003,"Piezometers in Fully-Grouted Boreholes." International Symposium on Geomechanics, Oslo, Norway. September 2003.
Contreras, Grosser, and Ver Strate, 2008,"The Use of the Fully-grouted Method for Piezometer Installation, " Geotechnical News, pp 30 - 37, Vol 26, June 2008. This paper by Barr Engineering provides results of extensive controlled lab and field tests.